SISTEMAS DE PUESTA A TIERRA

- TEORÍA, DISEÑO, MEDICIÓN y MANTENIMIENTO -

15. Referencias


Índice

0. GENERALIDADES. 

    [0.1] Miguel de la Vega Ortega. "Problemas de Ingeniería de Puesta a Tierra". LIMUSA 1999.

     

    [0.2] Toledano Gasca, José y Martínez Requena, Juan. “Puesta a tierra en edificios y en instalaciones eléctricas". Paraninfo 1997

     

    [0.3] Burgsdorf V. V. y Yakobs A. I. "Grounding in Electrical Installations". Energoatomizdat. Moscú 1987.

1. PUESTA A TIERRA DE SISTEMAS Y EQUIPOS ELÉCTRICOS. 

3. SISTEMAS DE TIERRA DE EQUIPOS ELECTRÓNICOS.

    [3.1]  "IEEE Std 518 - IEEE Guide for the Installation of  Electrical Equipment to Minimize Electrical Noise Inputs to  Controllers from External Sources", IEEE, ISBN 0-471-89539-5 

    [3.2]  Ralph Morrison  & Warren Lewis, "Grounding and Shielding In Facilities",  Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-83807-1 

    [3.3]  Henry Ott, "Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic  Systems", 2nd. Ed,  Wiley-Interscience 

    [3.4]  Ralph Morrison, "Grounding and Shielding Techniques  in Instrumentation",  Wiley-Interscience 

    [3.5]  Sten Benda, Chartwell Bratt, "Interference-free Electronics, Design  and  Application", London ISBN 0-86238-255-6 

    [3.6]  Hugh W. Denny "Grounding for the Control of EMI", Don White Consultants, Inc. Gainsville, VA, 1983, ISBN 0-82-063066

    [3.7] Michel Mardiguian, "Grounding and Bonding, Vol. 2",  Interference Control  Technologies,  Inc. Gainsville, VA., ISBN 0-944916-02-3 

    [3.8]  "IEEE Std. 1100-2005 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment", IEEE Emerald Book 

     

    [3.9]  L. Shulman, "Electromagnetic Interference and Grounding Consideration  in Distributed Control Systems". IEEE Industrial Applications Society Newsletter, May/June 1986.

     

    [3.10]  Guidelines for Grounding Information Technology Equipment (ITE) - Information Technology Industry Council


    [3.11]  FIPS PUB 64 Guideline on Electrical Power for ADP Installations  - US National Bureau of Standards

     

    [3.12]  TIA/ANSI-J-STD-607-A-2002  - Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) and Bonding Requirements For Telecommunications.

     

    [3.13]  Electrical Construction & Maintenance.  http://www.ecmweb.com

     

4. PUESTA A TIERRA DE LÍNEAS DE TRANSMISIÓN Y DISTRIBUCIÓN

[4.1] E. S. Thomas, R. A. Barber, J. B. Dagenhart & A. L. Clapp "Distribution Grounding Fundamentals". IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference, 2004

5. SISTEMAS DE TIERRA DE PROTECCIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA 

    [5.1] "Lightning Protection Code. ANSI/NFPA 780". National Fire  Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy MA 12269

    [5.2] R. T. Hasbrouck, "Lightning - Understanding It and Protecting Systems from  Its Effects", UCRL-53925 Lawrence Livermore  National Laboratory, April 1989.

    [5.3]  M. O. Durham  and R. Strattan. Stillwater, "Harmonics  on  AC Power Systems. Frontiers of Power". Oklahoma  State  University, Oct. 1990.

    [5.4]  Marcus  O. Durham and R. A. Durham, "Lightning,  Grounding and Protection  for Control Systems". IEEE Transactions on  Industry Applications Jan 1995.

    [5.5] M. O. Durham. "Submersible power supply considerations" Electric Submersible  Pump Workshop. Society of Petroleum  Engineers. Houston TX, April 1986.

    [5.6]  F. Schwab. Bull, "Berechnung der Schutzwirkung von Blitzableitern und Turmen".  Schweiz Elektrotech, vol 56 1965.

    [5.7] R. B. Bent. "Lightning and the hazards it produces for explosive facilities"  ACS Symp. Series No. 96. 1979. p 81.

    [5.8] R. Verma. "Fundamental Considerations and Impulse Impedance of Grounding Grids" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 3 March 1981 p. 1023.

    [5.9] "Ground Systems Design Considerations for Vessels". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. Nov-Dec 2001 41-49.

    [5.10] T. Udo. "Contents of Large Current Flashes among all the lightnings measured on transmission lines".  IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Oct 1998. 1432-1436.

    [5.11] L. G. Byerley et al. "Towers, Lightning and Human Affairs".  11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, June 7-11, Guntersville, AL, 1999.

    [5.12] Martin A. Uma. "Natural and Artificially-Initiated Lightning and Lightning Test Standards".  Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 76, No. 12, Diciembre 1988. Págs. 1548-1565.

    [5.13] R. H. Golde,  "The Frequency of Ocurrence and the Distribution of Lightning Flashes to transmission lines"   AIEE Trans., 1945. Vol 64, págs. 902-910.

    [5.14] R. H. Golde, , "Protection of Structures Against Lightning" Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 115, No. 10, pp. 1523-1529, 1968. 

    [5.15] A. J. Eriksson, "The Incidence of Lightning Strikes to Power lines" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Vol PWRD-2, 1987.

    [5.16]  John P. Nelson, "Power Systems in Close Proximity to Pipelines". IEEE Transactions on  Industry Applications págs. 435-441 May/June 1986

    [5.17] D. E. Parrish.  "Distribution Lightning Protection - Past, Present, Future". IEEE Transactions on  Industry Applications págs. 183-187 March/April 1982.
     

    [5.18] L. M. Tolbert, Lynn J. Degenhardt, and Jeff T. Cleveland.  "Reliability of Lightning-Resistant Overhead Lines". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine págs. 17-21 Jul/Aug 1997.

    [5.19] Lightning Protection Guide - Dehn

    [5.20] Lightning Protection - MIL-HDBK-1004 / 6 (1979)

7. MEDICIONES DE RESISTIVIDAD PARA DISEÑO 

    [7.1] "Getting Down to Earth..." Megger.com. 2005.

    [7.2] "IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System", ANSI/IEEE Standard 81, 1983.

    [7.3]  K. M. Michaels. "Earth Ground Resistance Testing for Low-Voltage  Power  Systems".  IEEE Transactions on Industry  Applications Jan/Feb 95.

    [7.4]  Dr. G. Tagg. "Measurement of the Resistance of Large Earth Electrode  Systems by the Slope Method".  IEE Proceedings, Vol  117, Nov 1970.
     

8. MATERIALES

    [8.1] W. R.  Jones. "Bentonite  Rods Assure Ground Rods Installation  in  Problem Soils". IEEE Transactions on  Power  Apparatus  and Systems Jul/Aug 1980.

    [8.2] P. W.  Rowland. "Industrial System Grounding for Power, Static, Lightning, and Instrumentation,  Practical  Applications." IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Nov/Dec 1995.

    [8.3] H. B.  Dwight. "Calculation  of Resistances to Ground." AIEE Transactions vol 55. Dic 1936. págs. 1319-1328.

    [8.4] Herb G. Ufer, "Investigation and testing of footing-type grounding electrodes for electrical installations."  IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-83, págs. 1042-1048, Oct. 1964. 

    [8.5] "Effects of Electrical Grounding on Pipe Integrity and Shock Hazard". American Water Works AssociationJOURNAL AWWA  July 1998. Vol. 90, No. 7. págs. 40 – 52

    [8.6] Quingo Meng et al. "A New Method to decrease ground resistances of substation grounding systems in high resistivity regions".    IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery vol 14, No. 3. Jul 1999. págs. 911-916.
     

9. DISEÑO DE SISTEMAS DE TIERRA 

    [9.1] "Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book".  Westinghouse 1955.

    [9.2]  Ing. Rodolfo Lorenzo Bautista "Sistemas  de  Tierra en  Subestaciones  Eléctricas".   1994.

    [9.3] "IEEE Std 80-2000 Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding."

    [9.4] Wagner y R. D. Evans, "Symmetrical Components" C.F.  New York; McGraw-Hill, 1933.

    [9.5] L. Hung,  X. Chen. "Study of unequally spaced grounding Grids."  IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol 10, No. 2 pp 716-722. April 1995.

10. EJEMPLOS RESUELTOS DE SISTEMAS DE TIERRA 

    [10.1]  En  Internet  se  discuten casos  en  el  grupo  misc.utilities.electrical 

    [10.2] S. J. Schwarz, "Resistance of Grounding Systems."  Trans. AIEE Vol 73, 1954, págs. 1010-1016
     

12. MEDICIONES DE TIERRAS PARA MANTENIMIENTO

[12.1] A. Eleck, "Providing the Adequacy of Station Grounds" IEEE Trans. Comm. and Electronics Nov. 1962. págs. 368-376.

[12.2] Sobral, S.T. y otros. "Grounding Measurements at the Itapu Generating Complex using the Extended Eleck Method".  IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery Vol. 3 No. 4 Oct 1988 págs. 1553-1572

[12.3] Ing. Ramón Rivero. "Puesta a tierra de sistemas de potencia y mediciones de campo de sus parámetros". Instituto Tecnológico de Cd. Madero, Tams. 2001.

[12.4] "Getting Down to Earth..." Biddle Instruments. 1982.

[12.5] "IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System", ANSI/IEEE Standard 81, 1983.

[12.6]  M. Michaels. "Earth Ground Resistance Testing for Low-Voltage  Power  Systems".  IEEE Transactions on Industry  Applications Jan/Feb 95.

[12.7]  Dr. G. F. Tagg. "Measurement of the Resistance of Large Earth Electrode  Systems by the Slope Method."  IEE Proceedings, Vol  117, No. 11 Nov 1970.

[12.8]  Cheng-Gang Wang et al. "Grounding Resistance Measurement Using Fall-of-Potential Method with Potential Probe Located in Opposite Direction to the Current Probe".  IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 4, Oct 1998. 1128-1135

 

14. EFECTOS DE LA CORRIENTE ELÉCTRICA

[14.1] C. F. Dalziel and W. R. Lee. "Re-evaluation of lethal electric currents",   IEEE Trans. Ind. Gen. Appl., vol IGA-4 págs. 467-476. Sep-Oct 1968.

 

15. EXPERTOS EN LA MATERIA

 

Richard Keil
Dayton Power & Light
P. O. Box 1807
Dayton, OH 45401
T: (937) 331-4675; F: (937) 227-2673
richard.keil@dlpinc.com
* Sistemas de Tierras de Subestaciones

A. P. (Sakis) Meliopoulos 
Georgia Institute of Technology
1886 Fisher Trail NE
Atlanta, GA 30345-3466
T: (404) 894-2926; F: (404) 894-4641
sakis.meliopoulos@ece.gatech.edu
* Puesta a Tierra de Sistemas de Potencia

Dr. Víctor Manuel Cabrera M.
Torreón, Coah.
* Protección de Líneas de Transmisión

Ing. Jesús Anselmo Estrada
México, D.F.
janselmoe@prodigy.net.mx
* Sistemas Hospitalarios


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